V-Sync is short for "Vertical Synchronization". It's a setting that basically synchronizes 2 independent processes.

Before proceeding to the actual explanation here's a simplified description of how a frame gets on the monitor screen.

On one side the monitor regularly gets the data from buffer B depending on it's refreshrate (e.g. 75hz, 100hz, 120hz).

On the other side the graphics card regularly copies the data from buffer A to buffer B depending on how fast the system is (e.g. fast computer: every 3 milliseconds, slow computer: every 11 milliseconds; = results in framerate).

Both processes are not linked to each other unless V-Sync is enabled. V-Sync adjusts the maximal framerate to the monitors refreshrate. That means with a monitor set at 100hz you'll get 100 fps maximum.

Good to know, but why does one need that? The reason is something called "Tearing".
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